Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is a species of citrus tree and the fruit it produces. It is a member of the Rutaceae family, which also includes other citrus fruits such as lemon, lime, and grapefruit. The sweet orange tree is native to Southeast Asia and is widely cultivated in warm, tropical, and subtropical regions around the world.
The sweet orange is a small, evergreen tree that can grow up to 20 feet tall. It has glossy, dark green leaves and white flowers that have a sweet, citrus scent. The fruit is round or oblate in shape and ranges in size from 2 to 3 inches in diameter. It has a thin, orange peel that is easy to remove and a juicy, pulpy flesh that is divided into segments. The fruit is typically sweet and juicy, although the level of sweetness can vary depending on the variety and growing conditions.
Sweet oranges are a popular fruit because they are easy to peel and eat, and they are a rich source of vitamin C and other nutrients. They are commonly eaten fresh or used to make juice, and they are also used in a variety of other applications, including marmalades, jams, and candies.
Soil and climate: Deep well drained loamy soils are the best for the cultivation of Citrus. the pH of the soil should be 6.5 to 7.5 and the EC of water less than 1.0.
A dry climate with about 50 – 75 cm of rainfall from June – September and with well-defined summer and winter seasons is ideal. Comes up well in a tropical zone below 500 m. Extremes of temperature are necessary.
Season: July to September.
Planting material: Budded plants. (Root Stock-Rangpur lime is best, now rough lemon is also preferred).
Preparation of field: Dig pits at 75 cm x 75 cm x 75 cm size at 7 x 7 m spacing. Fill up the pits with topsoil and 10 kg of FYM. Plant the budded plants in the center of the pits and stake them.
Irrigation: Immediately after planting irrigates copiously. Irrigations may be given once in 10 days. Avoid water stagnation near the plant.
Manures and fertilizers per plant: N to be applied in two doses during March and October. FYM, P2O5, and K2O are to be applied in October.
Manures are applied in the basin 70 cm away from the trunk and incorporated into the soil. Spray solution containing Sulphate of Zinc (0.5%), Manganese (0.05%), Iron (0.25%), Magnesium (0.5%), Boron (0.1%), and Molybdenum (0.003%) once in 3 months at the time of new flush production.
In addition to that apply 50 g in each Sulphate of Zinc, Manganese, and Iron per tree per year.
Leaf miner: Spray dichlorvos 76 WSC at the rate of 1 ml/lit or dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit or fenthion 100 EC at the rate of 1 ml/lit or monocrotophos 36 WSC at the rate of 1.5 ml/lit or 5% of neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) or neem cake extract or neem oil 3%.
Citrus root nematode: Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens at 20g per tree at a depth of 15 cm and 50 cm away from the trunk for the management of slow decline due to the citrus root nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans).
Soil application of phorate @ 2 g followed by drenching with metalaxyl plus mancozeb 72 WP @ 0.1% 50 ml/ cutting/ polybag/ kg of nursery soil for citrus decline.
Little leaf malady: To control little leaf, spray zinc sulfate at 1.0 percent plus Teepol 1 ml/lit of solution at various stages.
1) New flush
2) One month after the first spray
3) At flowering
4) Fruit set
After cultivation: Remove water shoots, rootstock sprouts, and dead and diseased shoots. Remove laterals up to 45 cm from ground level.
Intercropping: Legumes and vegetable crops can be raised during the pre-bearing age.
Harvest: Starts bearing from 5th year after planting.
Yield: 30 t/ha.