Malus sylvestris, also known as the wild apple or the common apple tree, is a species of apple tree native to Europe, Asia, and northwest Africa. It is the ancestor of the domesticated apple (Malus Domestica), which is cultivated for its fruit.
The wild apple tree is a small deciduous tree or large shrub, growing to a height of up to 15 meters (50 feet). It has dark green leaves, white flowers, and small, bitter apples. The wild apple tree is found in a variety of habitats, including forests, hedgerows, and grasslands.
Malus sylvestris is a member of the rose family, Rosaceae, and is closely related to other members of the genus Malus, including the domesticated apple (Malus Domestica), crabapple (Malus hupehensis), and mountain ash (Sorbus spp.).
The wild apple tree has a long history of use by humans. It has been cultivated for thousands of years and is mentioned in literature and folklore dating back to ancient civilizations. The fruit of the wild apple tree is small and bitter, but it has been used to make cider and other alcoholic beverages. The tree has also been used for ornamental purposes and as a rootstock for domestic apple trees.
In modern times, Malus sylvestris is not as widely cultivated as the domesticated apple (Malus Domestica). However, it is still valued for its ecological importance as a food source for wildlife and as a contributor to biodiversity. The wild apple tree is also used in breeding programs to develop new varieties of domestic apples.
Procedures For Planting Apple
Varieties: Warm winter-resistant varieties with low chilling requirements alone are suitable for the little hot climes
Early varieties: Yield: April – May
Irish Peach and Zouches Pipin.
Mid-season varieties: Yield: June – July.
Carrington and Winterstein.
Late varieties: Yield: August – September. Rome Beauty, Parlin’s Beauty, and KKL 1.
Soil and climate: Red lateritic soils with good drainage and high organic matter are more suitable. The soil pH should be around 5.8 to 6.2. Can be grown from 1200 to 2000 m.
Planting material: One-year-old grafts on M.778 and M.779 rootstocks during June – July.
Season: June to December.
Spacing: 4 x 4 m in pits of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm.
Irrigation: Water the plants till establishment.
Application of fertilizer: Apply FYM 25 kg. N 500 g and 1 kg in each of P and K per bearing tree.
Training and pruning: The tree is trained to open the center system. Prune the tree every December – January.
Plant Protection (PESTS & DISEASES)
Wooly aphis: Use resistant root stalks M 778, 799, MM 104, MM 110, MM 112, MM 113, MM 114, and MM115. The parasite Aphelinus mali should be conserved in the field. Spray methyl demeton 25 EC
at the rate of 4 ml/lit.
Apple scab: To control apple scabs follow the spray schedule:
1. Silvertip to green tip: Captafol or Mancozeb or 2 g/lit.
2. Pink bud or after 15 days: Mancozeb 2 g/lit.
3. Petal fall: Carbendazim 0.5 g/lit.
4. 10 days after petal fall: Mancozeb 2 g/lit.
5. 14 days after fruit set: Captafol 2 g/lit.
Add stickers like Triton AE or Teepol at 10 ml/10 lit of spray fluid. Use low-volume sprayers.
Lichens: Spray quick lime 1 kg/20 lit of water after pruning to control lichen’s growth.
Yield: 10 – 20 kg/tree/year. The tree starts bearing from 4th year of planting